Loh KP1, Ho D2,3,4,5, Chiu GNC6, Leong DT7, Pastorin G6, Chow EK8.
1Department of Chemistry and Centre for Advanced 2D Materials (CA2DM), National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117543, Singapore.
2Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117583, Singapore.
3Department of Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117599, Singapore.
4Singapore Institute for Neurotechnology (SINAPSE), Singapore, 117456, Singapore.
5Biomedical Institute for Global Health Research and Technology (BIGHEART), Singapore, 117599, Singapore.
6Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117543, Singapore.
7Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117585, Singapore.
8Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, Department of Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117599, Singapore.
Nanomaterials have the potential to improve how patients are clinically treated and diagnosed. While there are a number of nanomaterials that can be used toward improved drug delivery and imaging, how these nanomaterials confer an advantage over other nanomaterials, as well as current clinical approaches is often application or disease specific. How the unique properties of carbon nanomaterials, such as nanodiamonds, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, graphene, and graphene oxides, make them promising nanomaterials for a wide range of clinical applications are discussed herein, including treating chemoresistant cancer, enhancing magnetic resonance imaging, and improving tissue regeneration and stem cell banking, among others. Additionally, the strategies for further improving drug delivery and imaging by carbon nanomaterials are reviewed, such as inducing endothelial leakiness as well as applying artificial intelligence toward designing optimal nanoparticle-based drug combination delivery. While the clinical application of carbon nanomaterials is still an emerging field of research, there is substantial preclinical evidence of the translational potential of carbon nanomaterials. Early clinically trial studies are highlighted, further supporting the use of carbon nanomaterials in clinical applications for both drug delivery and imaging.
biomedical applications; carbon nanotubes; graphene; nanocarbons; nanodiamonds