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Exosomes in Cancer Nanomedicine and Immunotherapy: Prospects and Challenges. (Trends Biotechnol, July 2017)

Syn NL1, Wang L2, Chow EK3, Lim CT4, Goh BC5.

Author information
1 Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Department of Hematology-Oncology, National University Cancer Institute, Singapore.
2 Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Department of Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, Singapore. Electronic address: csiwl@nus.edu.sg.
3 Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Department of Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, Singapore.
4 BioSystems and Micromechanics (BioSyM) IRG, Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART) Centre, Singapore; Mechanobiology Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
5 Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Department of Hematology-Oncology, National University Cancer Institute, Singapore; Department of Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, Singapore; Developmental Therapeutics Unit, National University Cancer Institute, Singapore.

Abstract
Exosomes (versatile, cell-derived nanovesicles naturally endowed with exquisite target-homing specificity and the ability to surmount in vivo biological barriers) hold substantial promise for developing exciting approaches in drug delivery and cancer immunotherapy. Specifically, bioengineered exosomes are being successfully deployed to deliver potent tumoricidal drugs (siRNAs and chemotherapeutic compounds) preferentially to cancer cells, while a new generation of exosome-based therapeutic cancer vaccines has produced enticing results in early-phase clinical trials. Here, we review the state-of-the-art technologies and protocols, and discuss the prospects and challenges for the clinical development of this emerging class of therapeutics.

PMID: 28365132