Mustafa N1, Ting Lee JX2, Adina Nee HF2, Bi C1, Chung TH2, Hart S3, Chng WJ1,2,4
1 Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
2 Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
3 SBIO Pte Ltd., Singapore.
4 Department of Haematology-Oncology, National University Cancer Institute of Singapore, National University Health System, Singapore.
The PI3K/mTOR/AKT pathway is an integral regulator of survival and drug resistance in multiple myeloma (MM). VS-5584 was synthesized with dual-specific and equipotent activity against mTORC1/2 and all four Class I PI3K isoforms so as to durably inhibit this pathway. We show that VS-5584 is highly efficacious against MM cell lines even in the presence of IL-6 and IGF-1 and that this growth inhibition is partially dependent on Bim. Importantly, VS-5584 triggers apoptosis in patient cells with a favorable therapeutic index. Gene expression profiling revealed a VS-5584-induced upregulation of RARRES3, a class II tumor suppressor gene. MM patient databases, UAMS and APEX, show that RARRES3 is under-expressed in 11q13 subsets which correlates with the reduced effectiveness of VS-5584 in 11q13 cell lines. Silencing RARRES3 expression significantly rescues VS-5584-induced cell death and increases cyclin D2 expression but not cyclin D1 or other cyclins implying a role for RARRES3 in cell cycle arrest. In vivo, VS-5584 significantly reduces the tumor burden of MM mouse xenografts. We further identified that VS-5584 synergised with Dexamethasone, Velcade, and exceptionally so with HDAC inhibitor, Panobinostat. Interestingly, this was consistently observed in several patient samples, proposing a promising novel clinical strategy for combination treatment especially in relapsed/refractory patients.
KEYWORDS: RARRES3; dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor; myeloma; panobinostat; therapeutics